If you have a symptom or your screening test result suggests cancer, your doctor must determine whether it is cancer or some other cause. The doctor may ask about your personal and family medical history and perform a physical exam. The doctor also may order lab tests, x-rays, or other tests or procedures.
Tests of the blood, urine, other fluids, and tissue can help doctors make a diagnosis. These tests can show how well an organ (such as the kidney) is doing its job. Also, high amounts of some substances may be a sign of cancer. These substances are often called tumor markers. However, abnormal lab results are not a sure sign of cancer. Doctors cannot rely on lab tests alone to diagnose cancer.
Imaging procedures create pictures of areas inside your body that help the doctor see whether a tumor is present. These pictures can be made in several ways:
An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your organs. You may receive a contrast material (such as dye) to make these pictures easier to read.
A strong magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas in your body. Your doctor can view these pictures on a monitor and can print them on film.
A procedure in which a small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein, and a scanner is used to make detailed, computerized pictures of areas inside the body where the glucose is used. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than normal cells, the pictures can be used to find cancer cells in the body. Also called positron emission tomography scan.
You receive an injection of a small amount of radioactive material. It flows through your bloodstream and may collect in certain bones or organs. A machine called a scanner detects and measures the radioactivity. The scanner creates pictures of bones or organs on a computer screen or on film.
An ultrasound device sends out sound waves that people cannot hear. The waves bounce off tissues inside your body like an echo. A computer uses these echoes to create a picture called a sonogram.
X-rays are the most common way to view organs and bones inside the body.
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In most cases, doctors need to do a biopsy to make a diagnosis of cancer. For a biopsy, the doctor removes a sample of tissue and sends it to a lab. A pathologist looks at the tissue under a microscope. The sample may be removed in several ways:
With a needle: The doctor uses a needle to withdraw tissue or fluid.
With an endoscope: The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube (an endoscope) to look at areas inside the body. The doctor can remove tissue or cells through the tube.
With surgery: Surgery may be excisional or incisional. In an excisional biopsy, the surgeon removes the entire tumor. Often some of the normal tissue around the tumor also is removed. In an incisional biopsy, the surgeon removes just part of the tumor.
Questions for Your Doctor
You may want to ask the doctor these questions before having a biopsy:
- Where will I go for the biopsy?
- How long will it take? Will I be awake? Will it hurt?
- Are there any risks? What are the chances of infection or bleeding after the procedure?
- How soon will I know the results?
- If I do have cancer, who will talk to me about the next steps? When?
- What can I expect after the procedure?