Low red blood cell count.
A medication that reduces pain by dulling sensation.
A drug that aids in protecting the digestive system and relieves heartburn and digestive discomfort.
A protein produced by the body to eliminate foreign substances, such as bacteria.
A foreign molecule or substance, such as
a transplant, that triggers an immune response. This response may be
the production of antibodies, which, in turn, try to inactivate or
destroy the antigen (transplanted organ).
An x-ray of the arteries taken with the aid of a dye.
A buildup of fats in the lining of the arteries that may interfere with the flow of blood.
A specialized white blood cell responsible for the body's immunity. B cells play a central role in antibody production.
Small organisms (germs) that can cause disease.
A measure of how much of an
administered drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, actually reaching
the intended site of action in the body.
When the brain has permanently
stopped working, as determined by a neurological surgeon, artificial
support systems may maintain functions such as heartbeat and respiration
for a few days.
An individual who has recently
died of causes that do not affect the function of an organ to be
transplanted. Either the person or the person's family has generously
offered organs and/or tissues for transplantation.
An immunosuppressive drug used with
other immunosuppressants to prevent the rejection of the transplanted
organ. Also known by its chemical name, myophenolate mofetil.
A form of fat that performs necessary
functions in the body but can also cause heart disease; cholesterol is
found in animal foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy
A test in which donor and recipient
blood samples are mixed together. A "positive" crossmatch shows the
donor and recipient are incompatible. A "negative" crossmatch shows
there is no reaction between the donor and the recipient. This means
that the donor and recipient are compatible and the transplant may
A virus infection that is
very common in transplant recipients; it can affect the lungs and other
organs as well; a member of the family of herpes viruses.
To change a harmful substance into a safer form.
A condition in which an insufficient
amount of insulin is produced by the pancreas, resulting in high levels
of glucose in the blood.
The bottom of two blood pressure numbers, which measures blood pressure when the heart is at rest.
Excess fluid in body tissues; swelling of the ankles, for example, is a sign of edema.
A recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
Generally refers to the dissolved form of a mineral such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, etc.
A protein made in the body and capable of changing a substance from one form to another.
A type of sugar found in the blood.
An organ or tissue that is transplanted.
When a transplanted tissue or
organ is accepted by the body and functions properly. The potential for
graft survival is increased when the recipient and donor are closely
matched, and when immunosuppressive therapy is used.
The heart is a myogenic muscular organ that
is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by
repeated, rhythmic contractions.
Helper T Cell
The specialized white blood cell that tells other parts of the immune system to combat infection or foreign material.
A measure of the red-blood-cell content of blood.
An excessive increase in hair growth -
especially male-pattern hair growth in a female. Hirsutism is a common
side effect of corticosteroids and can also occur with cyclosporine
therapy, but is easily treated with depilatory creams or other methods
of hair removal.
High blood pressure.
Any defensive reaction to foreign material by the immune system.
The system that protects the body from invasion by foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, and from cancer cells.
A condition of being able to resist a particular infectious disease.
Prevention or suppression of
immune response. Transplant patients receive immunosuppressive drugs in
order to prevent rejection.
Medications given to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ.
An immunosuppressive drug used with other
immunosuppressive drugs to help prevent the rejection of a transplanted
organ. Also known by its chemical name, azathioprine.
No likeness or similarity between donor or recipient blood type or organs.
Indiana Organ Procurement Organization (IOPO)
serves as the integral link between the potential donor and recipient
and is accountable for the retrieval, preservation and transportation of
organs for transplantation. IOPO is an UNOS members as are all Organ
IV or Intravenous
Refers to giving medicines or fluids directly through a vein.
A small needle with a hollow tube inserted into a vein and used to give medicines or fluids.
The compatibility between recipient and
donor. In general, the more closely the donor and recipient "match", the
greater the potential for a successful transplant.
A type of white blood cell.
Failure to follow the instructions
of one's health care providers, such as not taking medicine as
prescribed or not showing up for clinic visits.
Between organ procurement and
transplant, organs require special methods of preservation to keep them
viable. The length of time that organs and tissues can be kept outside
the body varies, depending on the organ, the preservation fluid and the
An attempt by the immune system to reject or destroy what it recognizes to be a "foreign" presence.
Panel Reactive Antibody (PRA)
A way of measuring immune system activity within the body. PRA is higher when more antibodies are being made.
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP)
A type of pneumonia seen primarily in patients whose immune systems are suppressed.
A small blood cell needed for normal blood clotting.
A mineral essential for body function.
A manufactured steroid hormone taken
by most transplant recipients to help prevent rejections medication that
helps prevent disease.
An immune response against grafted tissue, which, if not successfully treated, results in failure of the graft to survive.
Refers to the kidney.
Due to organ rejection or
transplant failure, some patients need another transplant and return to
the waiting list. Reducing the number of retransplants is critical when
examining ways to maximize a limited supply of donor organs.
An earlier formulation
of cyclosporine. An immunosuppressive drug used with other
immunosuppressive drugs, that acts specifically to inhibit helper T
cells, thereby helping prevent the rejection of a transplanted organ.
Sandimmune and Neoral are not bioequivalent and cannot be used
interchangeably without physician supervision.
Being immunized, or able to mount an immune response, against an antigen by previous exposure to that antigen.
A component of table salt (sodium chloride); an electrolyte that is the main salt in blood.
Indicates the degree of medical urgency for patients awaiting transplants.
Stricture or Stenosis
A narrowing of passage in the body.
Survival rates indicate how many
patients or grafts (transplanted organs) are alive/functioning at a set
time post-transplant. Survival rates are often given at one, three and
five years. Policy modifications are never made without examining their
impact on transplant survival rates. Survival rates improve with
technological and scientific advances. Developing policies that reflect
and respond to these advances in transplantation will also improve
The top of the two blood pressure
numbers, which measures the maximum blood pressure reached as blood is
pumped out of the heart chambers.
A form of fat that the body makes from sugar, alcohol, and excess calories.
A white blood cell responsible for the
body's immunity. T cells can destroy cells infected by viruses, graft
cells, and other altered cells.
A blood test (performed prior to
transplantation) to evaluate the closeness of tissue match between
donor's organ and recipient's HLA antigens.
Ventricular Assist Device (VAD)
mechanical pump used for blood circulation support. It decreases the
workload of the heart while maintaining adequate flow and blood
A very small agent (germ) that causes infection.
After evaluation by the transplant
physician, a patient is added to the national waiting list by the
transplant center. Lists are specific to both geographic area and organ
type: heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine, heart-lung,
kidney-pancreas. Each time a donor organ becomes available, the UNOS
computer generates a list of potential recipients based on factors that
include genetic similarity, organ size, medical urgency and time on the
waiting list. Through this process, a "new" list is generated each time
an organ becomes available.
White Blood Cells
Cells in the blood that fight infection; part of the immune system.